In the area of pesticide regulation, existing EU authorisations, authorisations and restrictions on substances will continue to be valid in the UK after Brexit.18 In the week following the expiry of the transition agreement on 8 January 2021, the UK government departed from an EU ban and granted emergency authorisation for Syngentas Cruiser SB, a product containing thiamethoxam. The product Cruiser is approved for the treatment of sugar beet seeds in England for a period of 120 days. This responds to a decline in sugar beet yields during the 2020 season due to the incidence of the yellow virus.19 Following the first round of exit negotiations, the UK and the EU set out an agreed approach to financial management in the December 2017 Joint Report. The statement shall specify the financial obligations to be covered, the method of calculation of the share of the United Kingdom and the payment schedule. The Withdrawal Agreement translates the approach set out in this report into a legal text and provides for the continuation of negotiations on the UK`s contributions to the EU budget in the event of an extension of the transition period. An extension would have no impact on financial implementation, which would continue as agreed. Without the European Commission (Commission) and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), how would the government be held accountable for its environmental performance and its success or failure to meet the targets? Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment  L 197/30. Would environmental law become more volatile and subject to short-term political change? Both the draft Withdrawal Agreement and the Political Declaration have potentially important implications for the UK Constitution. Among the constitutional issues that may arise in a bill implementing the Withdrawal Agreement are: the Agreement on the Withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community (2019/C 384 I/01). The NI protocol, known as the « backstop, » is supposed to be temporary and valid unless it is replaced by a future relationship agreement that the parties will seek to conclude by December 31, 2020. The Protocol foresees that the common travel area and North-South cooperation will continue to a large extent as before, as will the internal electricity market (so that some EU legislation on wholesale electricity markets will continue to apply). Some steps are being taken for longer-term planning. In particular, the current Environment Act requires the UK government to draw up an environmental improvement plan « to significantly improve the natural environment » over a period of at least 15 years.
Footnote 23 Progress must be reported annually and must be accompanied by a number of long-term legislative objectives in different sectors, including the priority areas of air quality, water, biodiversity, resource efficiency and waste reduction. The process of developing these targets is only at an early stage, footnote 24, but they are likely to be less extensive than the objectives set out in EU legislation, such as footnote 25 of the Water Framework Directive (the legal requirement only applies to targets for « at least one point in each priority area ») and will be more vulnerable to future adjustments. An Environmental Strategy for Scotland is also being developed, footnote 26 but without the legal basis for the Environmental Improvement Plan, and at its current stage it focuses on general objectives rather than specific legal objectives. The government has pledged to hold a vote on a resolution in both houses of Parliament before the EP vote, calling on each house to approve the withdrawal agreement. So far, the UK Parliament has had two « significant votes » but had not approved the November 2018 withdrawal agreement, despite EU assurances in January 2019 that the backstop should not be permanent, and further interpretations and clarifications in March 2019. The Strasbourg « package » of clarifications and the Attorney General`s opinion on them are discussed in House of Commons Background Paper 8525, The « Strasbourg Package », 13 March 2019. The Protocol on Gibraltar shall apply until the end of the transitional period, with the exception of the provisions relating to citizens` rights, which shall continue to exist thereafter. .